This Essay is based on the work of cosmologists Frederick Rothwarf and Sisir Roy, “Quantum Vacuum and a Matter-Antimatter Cosmology.” Their manuscript (R-R) derives a Universe that is spectacularly different, in its past embodiment, from the accepted “establishment” version of the history of our Universe.
The R-R manuscript is, in turn, a continuation of the work of physicist Allen Rothwarf (1935-1998,Frederick’s brother). Allen Rothwarf’s magnum opus, “An Aether Model of the Universe,” was published by “Physics Essays,” vol. 11, no.3, Sept. 1998, pp. 444-466.
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Allen Rothwarf’s model is a Universe filled with aether particles (EP’s). An EP consists of an electron-positron pair. This immediately gives the mass of an EP as twice the mass of an electron, or 1.822 X 10-30 kg. Since it has mass, an EP is gravitationally attracted to other masses. Furthermore, the EP model led to a set of calculations that concluded that the velocity of light, c, is inversely proportional to the square root of time, t, where t is taken as zero at the Big Bang:
c = k/t0.5 (1)
where k is a constant. This has a singularity at t = 0 (that is, c becomes infinite), but the equation is applicable only after a period of “inflation” following the Big Bang.
Using the present-day values of c = 2.998 X 108 m/s and t = 13.7 billion years, we get
c = 3.509 X 1013/t0.5 (2)
where the units of c are m/s, and those of t are years.
This conjectured relationship is plotted, using log-log scales, in Fig. 1. Several interesting features show up in this straight-line plot:
Fig. 1—Velocity of light versus time since the Big Bang if c is inversely proportional to the square root of t. The Universe is assumed to be 13.7 billion years old. The Earth formed 4.55 billion years to the left of “Now.” At t = 1 billion years, c = 11.10 X 108 m/s; at t = 100 billion years, c = 1.110 X 108 m/s. The “Phases” are conjectured biological states.
(1) Because of the log-log scales, there is only a relatively short distance between the “Earth formed” and “Now,” 4.55 billion years later. The velocity when the Earth formed is 3.668 X 108 m/s, or a decrease of 18.28% since then.
(2) Is there a chance that, during one of our lifetimes, we can measure the change in velocity? We get
dc/dt = – c/(2t). (3)
At the “Now” point, then, dc/dt = – 0.01094 m/s/year, or – 1.094 m/s in 100 years. This raises the exciting possibility that the decrease in the speed of light, if it exists, can be measured with very accurate instruments.
(3) At the left end, at t = one billion years, the velocity of light is 11.10 X 108 m/s. At the right end, where the Universe is 100 billion years old, the velocity is 1.110 X 108 m/s. From “Now” at t = 13.7 billion years to t = 100billion years, the velocity decreases by a factor of only 2.70.
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The R-R cosmological model gives the theoretical basis for a proposal by Mordehai Milgrom (Mordehai Milgrom is an Israeli physicist and professor in the department of Condensed Matter Physics at the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot):
The sun’s planets rotate around the sun in a manner such that the sun’s pull of gravity supplies the centripetal force of acceleration toward the sun, a motion that maintains approximately constant orbital radius. But it was long ago observed that the outer stars, in rotating around the center of the Milky Way galaxy, do not obey the velocity expected from the gravity-centripetal force relationship. The stars are moving much faster than one would expect from Newton’s second law, force = mass X acceleration. What, then, keeps them from flying out of the Milky Way? It is as if there is a tremendous amount of Dark Matter whose gravitational attraction pulls the stars back toward the center of the galaxy. The Dark Matter may be 10 times as massive as the visible star matter.
One of the greatest of cosmological mysteries is, of course, that it has been impossible to capture some Dark Matter in order to weigh it, to find out its composition, or whatever.
Milgrom, in 1983, came up with a simple proposal: Modify Newton’s second law so that, for very small accelerations (such as those associated with stars that are far from the center of the galaxy), the stars are pulled in with a force greater than mass X acceleration. The new model is called Modified Newtonian Dynamics, or MOND.
The MOND model completely eliminates the need for Dark Matter. Furthermore, the MOND fit is just about perfect for the dynamics of other galaxies, not only the Milky Way.
Although the “establishment” is still searching for Dark Matter, Milgrom’s proposal has been accepted bymany cosmologists. A very readable account of MOND is given by Milgrom in “Does Dark Matter Really Exist?,” in the Scientific American, August 2002.
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Allen Rothwarf also pointed out that “If c is a function of time, e [electron charge], h [Planck’s constant], andm [rest mass of an electron] may also be time dependent.” This may invalidate the age of the Universe and, also, Fig. 1.
But let’s, for now, ignore the exact time scale of Fig. 1. Consider, instead, the four Phases shown in the figure. I conjecture that the natural “constants” change with time, so that the chemical, physical, and biological processes with which we are familiar also change with time. That is:
In Phase 1, life as we know it could not exist. In this early phase of the Universe, the structure of CHON (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen) atoms were such that it was impossible for these atoms to stick together, in proper sequence, to form anything like a DNA (or RNA) molecule. Other complex molecules could form, but none of them were viable.
In Phase 2, during which the Earth formed, it was easy and natural for CHON atoms to stick to each other. Eventually, given the millions of places where a proper “soup” formed, and millions of years for molecules to grow as their atoms stuck together, the simplest of DNA (or RNA) molecules formed. Without any predators, the first living cell multiplied until all of the available chemical “food” or energy was consumed. Then the slow process of mutation, and survival of the fittest, began.
In Phase 3, the phase in which we now find ourselves, mutations and survival of the fittest have, after some 4 billion years, given birth to homo sapiens. These creatures are very intelligent, and they know a great deal about DNA molecules, but they cannot synthesize the most primitive of viable cells. The reason is that the CHON atoms are different from what they were in Phase 2. They don’t stick together in a manner to form the simplest of living cells. There’s not much that can be done about it, because one cannot take a bottle filled with Phase 3 aether particles, and compress them to duplicate Phase 2 conditions.
In Phase 4, the natural “constants” will change to the point where life becomes impossible. A living cell, in Phase 4, will not be able to function. Gradually, as the Earth goes from Phase 3 to Phase 4, the population of complex biological forms will decrease. Finally, even the simplest of cells will fail to reproduce. Life will end because CHON atoms will not be capable of forming viable combinations. Again, complex molecules can form, but none of them will be viable. This may or may not occur before the sun explodes.
There is a message here for the Intelligent Design (ID) people. The notion that some kind of intelligent force molded the Universe is a most nonsensical idea. The ID argument is that the natural “constants” could never, by themselves, allow living cells to form. But my conjecture is that, as the Universe expands, as the density of aether particles changes, the natural “constants” likewise change. They enter a biologically viable Phase 2, where living cells can evolve, and eventually enter a biologically deadly Phase 4, where life becomes impossible. An Intelligent Designer is an unnecessary invention in the history of the Universe.
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Finally, the R-R calculation shows that the time scale of Fig. 1 is, indeed, incorrect. This does not alter the four-phase conjecture which, after all, is associated with rather diffuse time markers. The R-R calculations are sensational because they yield 9.24 billion years for the age of the Universe rather than the “establishment” value of 13.7 billion years. Furthermore, they indicate that the expansion of the Universe is decelerating, whereas conventional wisdom (since 1998) has it accelerating.
In due time, when the cosmologists come to accept the natural aether fluid which defines the Universe, they will be able to check the R-R calculations.